Music, especially dance, is well-versed in architecture, sculpture, painting, and writing. Bengali is no exception. We can know about the details of the dance, posture, musical instruments, costumes, etc. in the sculptures, paintings, and writings of ancient Bengal. Discussing the descriptions of Fa-Hien, Hiuen Tsang, and the ancient inscriptions and copperplates, there is no doubt that before the Turkish invasion of ancient Bengal, there were many hermits and temples with various ornaments and stupas and monasteries. But all this is almost destroyed.
Even in the twelfth century, all the ‘pranshu prasads’, mahaviharas and kanchan inlaid hermits and temples that Sandhikar Nandi saw in the Barind land have vanished in time. In this regard, Sheikh Hafizur Rahman said in his book “India and Bengali Self-Governance” published by Bangla Academy, Dhaka: “By defeating Raja Lakshman Sen, Malik Gazi Akhtiar Uddin Mohammad bin Baktiyar Khalji started Muslim rule in Gaur kingdom at the same time. In 1193 AD, he conducted raids in various places and collected a huge amount of money. The last Buddhist monastery and the oldest educational city, Nalanda Vikramshila University, was devastated and looted and massacred. ” He tried to spread Islam by cutting and killing. He then set fire to the library building. The volume of books in the library was so large that it took months for the ashes of those most valuable books to be reduced to ashes (rumored to be 6 months).
Stone is not cheap in this country, so most of the idols except the Gupta period, Pala period, and Sen period were made of terracotta and bricks were used in the construction of palaces or buildings. However, laterite and sandstone are found in the western part of Bengal. Bengal, therefore, has these two types of temples.3 Climate, excess rainfall, rains and river flooding cause the erosion of bricks and terracotta very quickly. Also, a lot has been lost in foreign aggression and our indifference. Both nature and man have wiped out the ancient artifacts of Bengal from the face of the earth. The temples, temple ruins, statues, and paintings discovered by archaeologists and researchers are the last vestiges of Bengal’s past artistic wealth. The culture of Bengal, especially the Gaudiya dance, has been alive since ancient times around these temples. In the temple premises or in the Nat Mandir, the stream of Bengali culture flowed through classical dance-song-story-Bhagwat text-Ramayana text-Yatra-religious discussion, etc. Among the temples of Bengal, small and large natmandirs can be seen from ancient times due to the practice of art. These theaters regularly performed dance songs. As a result, various cultural activities are still going on in the temples of Bengal. Although urbanization has resulted in modernity and the construction of various large auditoriums, temple-centered classical art is not as common as in the past but has not been completely lost. There are many temples with small Natmandirs such as Deoliar (Burdwan) temple, Gokulchand temple, Natmandirs of various temples located at Bishnupur. The upper part of the Paharpur temple, built in the 8th century, is almost extinct. But what is left at the bottom is completely different from other temples in India and the temple has a Natmandir and a mandapa – which is a testament to the cultural activities that have taken place in the temple in the past. According to some scholars, part of it is built on part of Hindu architecture.5 It is commonly believed that it was known as Adyanath or Adinath Temple during the reign of King Gopal (7th century) and later in the 12th-century Turkish invasion The mosque is named. There was a huge theater here, which still exists today. There are two types of temples in Bengal – Deul, and Dehara. ‘Deul’ means ‘Devakul’. The greatness of the deity was sung in the temple of Deul or in front of the dehara (music = assembly of songs-dances-instruments).